International Relations (IR) is a broad field that allows concentration in specific programs for students wishing to specialize, and general training in the subject for students wishing to achieve a wider appreciation of international politics. It teaches students the critical use of concepts as a basis for understanding and analyzing international relations. Students may choose to concentrate in General International Relations or one of the following five programs: Conflict Management The Conflict Management Program focuses on mechanisms for handling international conflict and developing cooperation. The program presents various theoretical approaches to negotiation, examines policies and processes in managing crises and conflicts and explores the formation and use of international organizations and regimes. Courses offer an opportunity to pursue case studies and simulations. Energy, Resources and Environment The Energy, Resources and Environment (ERE) Program offers an interdisciplinary curriculum in international policymaking and analysis, integrating economics, political science, law and other academic disciplines and examining policy not only in the abstract, but also as created and implemented in particular institutional settings. Global Theory and History The Global Theory and History Program examines continuity and change in the formation and maturation of territorially focused relations, along with transnational forces and ideologies. The program includes the interplay of political economy, diplomatic and military strategies and cultural civilizations. International Law and Organizations The International Law and Organizations Program seeks to provide a working knowledge of the principles of international law, including in the use of military force, arms control, international human rights, the environment, investment and trade. The political and legal nature of international organizations is also addressed, including that of the United Nations, the European Union, the World Trade Organization and the many structures that respond to civil war conflicts and their aftermath. International law should be of interest to students specializing in security studies, international investing and regional studies, as well as those who wish to understand a distinctive mode of thought. Strategic Studies The Strategic Studies Program explores the relationship between politics and the many kinds of military power—from the use of terror by small, nonstate groups to the threatened use of nuclear weapons.